The equivalency factor is not designed to compare the effects of cannabis oil to dried cannabis, or provide dosage information. For many patients, consuming cannabis orally will produce much stronger effects than inhaling it. For example, when considering a product that has an equivalency factor of 12ml of oil to 1 gram of dried cannabis, and a patient who usually consumes 1 gram of dried product a day, this patient will likely use less than 12 ml of oil per day. Even for patients who have previous experience of using cannabis oil, it is recommend that you start with a low dose and go slow.

Chronic administration: There’s minor evidence suggesting that chronic administration of CBD may be deleterious to neurophysiological health. This evidence didn’t come from a human study, but discovered that chronic CBD administration (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injections) for 14 days reduced BDNF expression in various regions of the brain.  It also altered protein expression of TrkB and phospho-ERK1/2 – indicating (potentially) unwanted epigenetic changes.

The scientific evidence for CBD's ability to quell anxiety, dampen psychosis, and lift the mood is patchy at the moment, although the National Institute on Drug Abuse is optimistic: "CBD has shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of animal models of anxiety and stress, reducing both behavioral and physiological (e.g., heart rate) measures of stress and anxiety."

Now 13, Jackson — whose diagnosis is undetermined — continues to use marijuana every day. (Like many patients, he ingests it in droplet form, which allows for more precise dosing and avoids lung problems.) He still has seizures, but they are less severe and they occur once every week or two, down from around 200 a month before he started using cannabis. He is back in school full time and is well enough to go on hikes and bike rides with his family.
If you feel you need to increase, do so in about the same increments as from week 1 to week 2 to week 3. Remember, you can not overdose or go wrong so don’t stress about this at all. Your body will take the CBD along with all the other cannabinoids in there and balance it self to perfection. You just make sure that you also help your body with the right lifestyle along the way.
There were distinct changes in neural activation associated with the significant anxiolytic effects provided by CBD.  When compared to the placebo, administration of CBD significantly: increased ECD tracer uptake in the right posterior cingulate gyrus and decreased ECD tracer uptake in the left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior temporal gyrus.  Researchers concluded that reductions in social anxiety from CBD are related to modulation of neural activity in the limbic and paralimbic regions.
In case you are unfamiliar, ipsapirone is classified as a 5-HT1A partial agonist that is understood to exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects.  Although it isn’t approved by the FDA to treat any conditions, it is commonly used as a research chemical.  Additionally, the drug Valium is understood to be a potent benzodiazepine that acts as a positive allosteric modulator at GABAA receptors; it is FDA approved for acute anxiety.
My husband has RSD and we are considering CBD oil -= I would ask at Hempmed because the spray won't have enough in it. Our dgt';s friend has ovarian cancer and it is shrinking her tumors but the spray would never have been enough. I would get CBD oil and check with Hempmeds to see what they suggest. It isn't cheap but it does work. LOW dose Naltrexone about 4.5 mg is very helpful for RSD and is usually used for getting people off of drugs but is working on turning off the glial cells that surround the nerve that is causing the nerve to scream in pain. We are also using PeaPure that is out of the Netherlands and we are seeing a response, even though small. His other leg touched the painful leg without causing more severe pain. That is progress. We also are using Poison Ivy Cream through Meadowlake Farms that has helped the burning surface pain. Change your diet and get rid of Gluten and Sugar, anything that causes inflammation. This is to allow your own body to work. Absolutely do not use any pain killers as it will turn up your pain. all the Hydrocodone, etc causes neural inflammation and so it will keep cascading higher your pain. Hope this is helpful. Mary

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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound found in the cannabis and hemp plants. CBD is one of over 100+ cannabinoids that are responsible for the therapeutic properties found in cannabis and hemp. CBD is widely known for its healing components and is used to treat a variety of conditions. It is generally accepted that CBD works best in conjunction with other cannabinoids and terpenes found in these plants. This potent combination — the entourage effect — is what makes the healing properties so exciting.
James Joliat, a 35-year-old video producer in Denver, has long experienced muscle and joint pain—mostly related to sports injuries. He says he started looking at natural remedies as an alternative to the prescription patches and pills his doctor recommended. After experimenting with homemade rubs infused with plant compounds—stuff like arnica and turmeric—he eventually stumbled onto topical cannabidiol (CBD) rubs.
Long-term outcomes: There are zero long-term studies investigating the safety, efficacy, and long-term effects of CBD as a treatment for anxiety. Data from animal model studies suggests that chronic CBD usage could yield deleterious epigenetic and/or neuropsychiatric effects. However, it is unclear as to whether administration of CBD at a normative (non-chronic) frequency would maintain therapeutic efficacy over a long-term.
I felt like many other users – afraid and nervous to take a dose of something that is supposed to take away my nervousness and anxiety. I use PureKana Vanilla 300mg. I’ve used it off and on for about a month. I started with 3-4 drops to get my body use to it and I noticed that the first night I tried it I ended up sitting on the couch watching t.v. not thinking about whether or not I was feeling ok – I just was. My bf asked how I was feeling and I was just feeling good – normal – calm. The next time, I took 4 – 6 drops but my anxiety overpowered the oil. I was going into a stressful work situation and even though I tried to attack the issue before I thought it would happen I ended up having an anxiety attack until I removed myself from the loud crowd and sat in nature with quietness. It was very discouraging at that point. I decided to give it a break and a week later I felt my stomach butterflies and ‘off’ feeling happening. I took 6 drops and sat outside where I was comfortable with a book and water. I ended up feeling fine and my anxiety just melted away without me realizing it. I think cbd oil is a great natural way to treat anxiety but go into it open-minded. It may work right away but sometimes the situation could outweigh the small dose and you just need more for a more stressful situation. I still believe in the power of the plant. It was put on this earth for a reason – to help!
CBD may help reduces REM behavior disorder in people with Parkinson’s disease. REM behavior disorder is a condition that causes people to act out physically during dreaming and REM sleep. Typically, during REM, the body is largely paralyzed, a state known as REM atonia. This immobilization keeps sleepers from reacting physically to their dreams. In REM behavior disorder, this paralysis doesn’t occur, leaving people free to move—which can lead to disruptive sleep and to injuring themselves or their sleeping partners. Cannabis may also work to reduce pain and improve sleep quality in people with Parkinson’s disease.
I have a a couple of questions regarding CBD Oils. I suffer from GAD (General Anxiety Disorder) and am under medication. However, Im planning to withdraw these meds little by little because i don’t want to depend on them anymore. I’m actually very interested on CBD Oils and want to give it a try, but is there a way I can try it and still be under my med on low doses at the same time? or should i withdraw them completely? the effects of withdrawing my med at once will hurt me so bad that I can get sick so thats why Im trying to lower my doses. I know any of you will tell me ask your doctor, but of course she who is my psychiatrist will tell me dont go for it. In general regular doctors wont suggest to go for alternative remedies which I hate. I would love to know your suggestions. Thanks

Cannabis oils and CBD oils are not the same thing. So what is CBD oil? Cannabidiol (CBD) oil has a high concentration of cannabidiol, while cannabis oil contains both CBD and THC. CBD oil is created by extracting CBD from either the cannabis or hemp plant and then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil. CBD does not produce a euphoric “high” or psychoactive effect because it doesn’t affect the same receptors as THC.
Cannabidiol offers a novel pharmacodynamic profile as an anxiolytic agent.  It is believed that administration of CBD (cannabidiol) modulates neurotransmission in a multitude of ways.  Literature shows that cannabidiol alters 5-HT1A, GPR55, CB1/CB2, and mu/delta opioid receptor sites – while simultaneously enhances hippocampal neurogenesis.  The combination of these neurophysiological effects likely contribute to its efficacy as a novel anxiolytic.
Long-term outcomes: There are zero long-term studies investigating the safety, efficacy, and long-term effects of CBD as a treatment for anxiety. Data from animal model studies suggests that chronic CBD usage could yield deleterious epigenetic and/or neuropsychiatric effects. However, it is unclear as to whether administration of CBD at a normative (non-chronic) frequency would maintain therapeutic efficacy over a long-term.
Bioavailability: The bioavailability of orally-administered CBD is considered extremely low (around 6%). If you smoke cannabidiol, the bioavailability increases to over 30% and if you utilize an intranasal preparation, bioavailability may reach nearly 50%.  However, since many people are using oral preparations of CBD, the bioavailability is low and will require a high dose.
There are thousands of unique varieties of hemp. The cultivars used for CBD oil contain significantly higher concentrations of CBD than others. Using these uniquely potent plants, it is possible to extract cannabis oil that contains significant levels of cannabidiol, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
I woke up seriously looking forward to my morning CBD oil fix … I mean, tonic. Truth be told, I’m an anxious person. Although I do a lot to try and calm my nerves, sometimes anxiety gets the best of me. But regardless of emotional or physical stress (I’m training for a marathon and running quite a bit!) I experienced this week, I felt a lot more in control after drinking my CBD oil tonics.  After work, I met up with a friend and felt like I could fully focus on our conversation without distractions. Could it be the CBD?
While the science behind CBD oil assuaged many of my concerns, Charlotte Figi's inspiring story was the kicker. Figi, a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with a rare and resistant form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome, was actually placed on hospice care and given a "do not resuscitate" order when her parents, desperate and frustrated with pharmaceutical medication, considered medical marijuana. Charlotte is now 99% seizure-free since she began supplementing with Charlotte Web's CBD oil, which the brand named after Figi.
Throughout the SPST, researchers utilized the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS), Negative Self-Statement scale (SSPS-N), and physiological measures (blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance) to determine the anxiolytic efficacy of CBD.  Results indicated that those receiving the CBD exhibited significantly less anxiety, cognitive deficits, speech discomfort, and decreased alertness on the VAMS measure.  Contrastingly, the individuals receiving the placebo exhibited high anxiety, cognitive deficits, high alertness, and overall discomfort on the VAMS.
CBD Isolates/Concentrates: Anyone familiar with smoking hash or other cannabis concentrates like wax and BHO will be no stranger to this delivery method. Simply sprinkle some into a vaporizer or water pipe, ignite, inhale, and enjoy! We find that this option is useful for individuals looking to elevate their regular consumption of CBD-rich cannabis flowers or other smokable herbs.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) like Celexa, Lexapro, and Zoloft, are primarily prescribed to treat depression. They work by preventing serotonin from being absorbed by the brain, increasing its availability. SSRIs are popular antidepressants that can be used long-term and are commonly prescribed to those who suffer from anxiety as well.
The cost of treatment varies: Depending on the dispensary and the dosage, it can range from around $100 a month to more than $1,000. Despite the cost, which is not covered by insurance, CBD medicines are drawing great interest for children with severe, intractable epilepsy. California and Colorado, which were among the first states to legalize medical marijuana, have become hot spots for such patients. Before other states legalized medicinal CBD use, some families moved to these states so they could have access to the compound.
A sketchy outline of the cannabis genome already exists, but it’s highly fragmented, scattered into about 60,000 pieces. Kane’s ambitious goal, which will take many years to achieve, is to assemble those fragments in the right order. “The analogy I use is, we have 60,000 pages of what promises to be an excellent book, but they’re strewn all over the floor,” he says. “We have no idea yet how those pages fit together to make a good story.”
Given what you know about CBD already, you likely won’t be surprised to learn that it does not work like typical sleep medications do. In fact, some studies have shown it to actually be mildly alerting, and even to activate some of the same receptors that caffeine does. With this in mind, how can it possibly work to promote a healthy night’s sleep?
In regard to their products, Elixinol offers a variety of CBD oils, tinctures, balms, and if you want to treat your pet, they’ve even got pet relief edibles. For those of you who don’t mind taking capsules, they provide a 450mg CBD Hemp oil capsule which some people have said helps assists specific conditions, but their tinctures are more popular and for many are known to do the trick.
Following cloning of the endogenous receptor for THC, namely the CB1R, endogenous CB1R ligands, or “endocannabinoids” (eCBs) were discovered, namely anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (reviewed in [22]). The CB1R is an inhibitory Gi/o protein-coupled receptor that is mainly localized to nerve terminals, and is expressed on both γ-aminobutryic acid-ergic and glutamatergic neurons. eCBs are fatty acid derivatives that are synthesized on demand in response to neuronal depolarization and Ca2+ influx, via cleavage of membrane phospholipids. The primary mechanism by which eCBs regulate synaptic function is retrograde signaling, wherein eCBs produced by depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron activate presynaptic CB1Rs, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release [23]. The “eCB system” includes AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol; their respective degradative enzymes fatty acid amide hydroxylase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase; the CB1R and related CB2 receptor (the latter expressed mainly in the periphery); as well as several other receptors activated by eCBs, including the TRPV1 receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and G protein-coupled 55 receptor, which functionally interact with CB1R signaling (reviewed in [21, 24]). Interactions with the TRPV1 receptor, in particular, appear to be critical in regulating the extent to which eCB release leads to inhibition or facilitation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release [25]. The TRPV1 receptor is a postsynaptic cation channel that underlies sensation of noxious heat in the periphery, with capsacin (hot chili) as an exogenous ligand. TRPV1 receptors are also expressed in the brain, including the amygdala, periaqueductal grey, hippocampus, and other areas [26, 27].

There's plenty of anecdotal evidence that CBD helps treat a variety of ailments. People are turning to oils, gummies, and other CBD food and drink products to relax at the end of a long day. Retired NFL players are using CBD to manage physical pain, debilitating headaches, and sleeplessness. Spa clients are even using CBD skin products to fight signs of aging.
Relevant studies in animal models are summarized in chronological order in Table ​Table1.1. CBD has been studied in a wide range of animal models of general anxiety, including the elevated plus maze (EPM), the Vogel-conflict test (VCT), and the elevated T maze (ETM). See Table ​Table11 for the anxiolytic effect specific to each paradigm. Initial studies of CBD in these models showed conflicting results: high (100 mg/kg) doses were ineffective, while low (10 mg/kg) doses were anxiolytic [59, 60]. When tested over a wide range of doses in further studies, the anxiolytic effects of CBD presented a bell-shaped dose–response curve, with anxiolytic effects observed at moderate but not higher doses [61, 90]. All further studies of acute systemic CBD without prior stress showed anxiolytic effects or no effect [62, 65], the latter study involving intracerebroventricular rather than the intraperitoneal route. No anxiogenic effects of acute systemic CBD dosing in models of general anxiety have yet been reported. As yet, few studies have examined chronic dosing effects of CBD in models of generalized anxiety. Campos et al. [66] showed that in rat, CBD treatment for 21 days attenuated inhibitory avoidance acquisition [83]. Long et al. [69] showed that, in mouse, CBD produced moderate anxiolytic effects in some paradigms, with no effects in others.
However, a standout amongst the most well-known approaches to expend cannabidiol is still through CBD oil. A portion of the best CBD oils incorporate brands like Green Roads World and Pure CBD Vapors. They are particularly useful for anxiety since they contain practically no THC – so there’s no danger of getting “high.” Cannabis oil can be added to nourishment or basically dropped straight under the tongue for sublingual ingestion, which works fast in relieving. Also, CBD oil has no odour, so sedating is absolutely cautious.
A research conducted by Ethan B Russo, GW Pharmaceuticals, WA, USA, suggests that CBD oil interacts with the protein cells in the body and sends chemical signals to your brain and immune system through a number of stimuli. This helps the cells positively respond to chronic pain. This oil is regularly suggested for people with inflammation and back pain because of its painkilling quality.
In other words, the greater the amount of CBD oil administered following administration of a 5-HT1A agonist, the more significant the displacement.  Researchers mention that this mechanism differs from THC which is incapable of displacing 5-HT1A agonists from the 5-HT1A receptor.  Partial agonism of the 5-HT1A receptor site is associated with an array of therapeutic effects including: increased serotonin (or serotonergic effects), increased dopamine (in medial PFC, striatum, hippocampus), releasing acetylcholine, and hippocampal neurogenesis.
I have been on prescription medication for insomnia. It is called Lunesta. I would like some advise on how to get off this medication by using CBD oil. I am cutting the medication is half each night and using CBD gummies with it. I am not getting very good results.Any advice on this would be appreciated. I tried 40 milligrams of the CBD gummies and half of a 3 milligram Lunesta..I couldnt get to sleep until about 3 in the morning. Help please

Bonn-Miller also explained that it's imperative to exhaust the traditional and established front-line treatments that are available before seeking out these products. "CBD is not really a first-line treatment for anything," he said. "You don’t want situations where somebody says, 'I have cancer I'm going to forgo chemotherapy because I read something about CBD or THC helping with cancer.'" That's not a good idea, Bonn-Miller said. "Not only is the science not there, but you may end up worse off."

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Medical Disclaimer: Statements in any video or written content on this site have not been evaluated by the FDA. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medications, or have a medical condition, consult your physician before using this product. Representations regarding the efficacy and safety of CBD oil have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA only evaluates foods and drugs, not supplements like these products. These products are not intended to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease. The material on this site is provided for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. Always consult your physician before beginning any supplement program.

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