If you’re just diving into the world of CBD, we recommend a starting serving size of two to three milligrams. From there, you can work your way up to 100 or even 200 milligrams, after you’ve taken the time to gradually observe how CBD affects your body and mind. Remember, you cannot overdose on CBD, and there are no reported side effects from using high concentrations.
Michael earned an MBA from the University of Windsor’s Odette School of Business in 2009 and an M.D. from Schulich School of Medicine at Western University in 2013, before entering a Family Practice residency at the University of Toronto. A member of the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, Doctors for Responsible Access and the Canadian Pain Society, he has completed over 2,000 cannabinoid therapy consultations and has presented many talks in community and hospital settings while serving as student health physician at Seneca College and Medical Director, Canabo Medical Clinic.
CBD oil products are liquid drops of hemp which are taken orally. They are non-psychoactive and are available in low and high concentrations. Hemp oil tinctures are easy-to-use and offer all of the benefits associated with CBD. Hemp oil can be used sublingually via a dropper, or it can be added to your food and beverages which is why most customers have made it their go-to CBD product.
THC, an intoxicating and illegal substance, is responsible for causing marijuana users to get “high.” Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive because it does not act on the same pathways as THC. Thus, it is impossible to get “high” by smoking or ingesting CBD or CBD oil extracted from industrial hemp plants, as they only have minuscule traces of THC (<0.3%).
Yet when one looks at the industry more broadly, there is cause for concern. In February, as part of an investigation into the marketing claims of six hemp oil companies, the FDA analyzed 18 CBD products. What it found was disturbing: Many of these supposed CBD products were entirely lacking in CBD. Of the products tested, six contained no cannabinoids whatsoever. Another 11 contained less than 1 percent CBD. The product that tested highest in CBD, at 2.6 percent, was a capsule for dogs. In states that have legalized CBD, regulations can require CBD products to contain at least 5 percent CBD, more often 10 or 15 percent.
When I took the CBD in pill form—I tried Alchemist Kitchen's soon-to-be-released gel caps with 25mg of CBD and 1mg of melatonin—I definitely noticed the difference. "If you're swallowing a pill, I wouldn't expect you to feel all that much for 45 to 60 minutes," says Shunney. And right around 45 minutes, I felt my whole body downshift into a lower stress gear. It was actually so obvious that I stopped reading and thought, "Huh, I must be relaxed now!" I'm not sure if it was the extra milligrams of CBD, the addition of melatonin, or just a superior formula, but I felt like I drifted off to sleep slightly earlier than when I took the drops.
My trouble falling asleep has never been a major problem. But when I recently learned that nearly 60 percent of people taking cannabidiol—better known as CBD, one of the over 80 compounds found in the marijuana plant—are doing it to help with sleep, I was intrigued. (That stat's according to a survey conducted by Brightfield Group and HelloMD, an online community that brings doctors and cannabis patients together.)
To access CBD oil, a solvent extraction process is required, which returns roughly 3-5 grams of oil per ounce of flower product used. Using grain or isopropyl alcohol as a solvent, you can strain the result of the mixture, leaving CBD oil behind. It is a lengthy process, and in countries where cannabis is legal, there are many places to access high-quality CBD oil.
“CBD coupled with stretching, icing, and foam rolling is a common treatment plan for tendonitis injuries about the knee, such as iliotibial band syndrome,” says Charles Bush-Joseph, M.D., a professor of orthopedics at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. “Many patients like the fact that CBD is a natural substance. While specific research on the use of CBD in this instance is lacking, many believe that it helps prevent muscle and collagen breakdown.”
An animal study using mice found repeated administration of CBD may help the hippocampus regenerate neurons, which could be useful for treating anxiety or depression. Research shows both SSRIs and CBD may promote neurogenesis. This is significant, because evidence suggests that severely impaired neuronal plasticity may influence suicidal behavior. Future research comparing CBD and SSRIs effect on neurogenesis could open up promising new avenues in how we understand depression and how to most effectively treat it.
CBD is short for cannabidiol, a cannabinoid compound that is found in hemp and marijuana. Both hemp and marijuana are part of the plant family known as Cannabis. The main difference between marijuana and hemp is the level of THC in each. THC, like CBD, is a cannabinoid compound. There are 60 different known cannabinoids, but THC is the most well-known—the Beyoncé of cannabinoids, if you will. The reason THC is so famous is because it's associated with the psychoactive high that people experience after smoking or ingesting weed.
It also is distinct from THC which acts as a CB1/CB2 partial agonist, thereby stimulating the receptor sites. If it acted the same as THC at the CB1/CB2 receptor sites, its therapeutic potential may be reduced. Moreover, since cannabidiol acts as an inverse agonist at the CB1/CB2 receptor sites, it doesn’t induce psychological euphoria and/or pleasure associated with downstream dopaminergic enhancement in the mesolimbic pathway (resulting from CB1/CB2 agonism).
Anti-inflammatory: Many individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders have severe inflammation, particularly neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation is associated with many causative underpinnings including: air pollution, brain injuries, viruses, and even standard aging. This increase in inflammation can lead to glial cell and cytokine abnormalities, each of which could contribute to anxiety disorders. CBD has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation, which in turn may directly improve anxiety, as well as cognitive function and mood.
my mom is 61 years old, actually got her to try CBD oil for anxiety and she’s actually been using it for months hahah. Does not have a medical marijuana card (lives in FL), but bought her the purekana 1,000 mL and sometimes she’ll go over a week without having to take her Xanax or sleep med prescription. amazing stuff I really hope CBD oil gets its due credit soon and more doctors start prescribing
Despite this, it's important to know that inflammation is not inherently bad; in fact, it's a brilliant aspect of our immune system. When balanced, inflammation heals wounds and fights off infections. The problem with inflammation arises when it increases and never calms down. Like a forest fire burning on in perpetuity, people get hurt. Same goes with the fiery squall of insidious, chronic inflammation. As a natural anti-inflammatory, CBD can help quell the flame and fight chronic inflammation.
Results from the study indicated that CBD administration increased neuronal proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal region. It is also thought that CBD’s modest affinity for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 may contribute to hippocampal neurogenesis. Stimulation of the CB1/CB2 receptor sites upregulates endocannabinoid signaling and leads to neuronal growth.
CB1 + CB2 receptor (inverse agonist): Most evidence suggests that CBD oil has a low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptor sites as an inverse agonist. In other words, it binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors but exerts the pharmacologically opposite effect to an agonist. This differs from a CB1/CB2 antagonist which solely binds to these receptors and blocks stimulation from endocannabinoids.
Efficacy: While it is impossible to confirm that CBD will effectively reduce anxiety in all users, most evidence indicates that it is likely to provide benefit when ingested at a sufficient dosage (600 mg – orally) on an acute basis. In other words, most people seeking immediate relief from anxiety will likely feel significantly less anxious after using CBD than if they had ingested a placebo. Placebo-controlled studies have already documented the efficacy of acute CBD administration for anxiety.
Adenosine 2A receptor: Administration of CBD is thought to act upon the adenosine 2A receptor site, possibly contributing to its anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Adenosine receptors are known to influence cardiovascular processes (cardiac rhythm, circulation), immune function, sleep, pain regulation, and blood flow. The adenosine 2A receptor interacts with G proteins to alter cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Dysfunction of the adenosine 2A receptor may disrupt neurotransmission of glutamate and dopamine, and simultaneously cause inflammation, neurodegeneration, and possibly anxiety.
Both Bonn-Miller and Ward stress that it's up to the consumer to be well-educated about the material they're purchasing and the research that's out there. "The companies that are creating [cannabis oils] are offering lots of claims about its use that are not necessarily substantiated by any research," Bonn-Miller said. So "I think there needs to be, from a consumer standpoint, a lot of vigilance," he added.
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