CBD has a broad pharmacological profile, including interactions with several receptors known to regulate fear and anxiety-related behaviors, specifically the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, and the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor [11, 12, 19, 21]. In addition, CBD may also regulate, directly or indirectly, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter, the adenosine transporter, additional TRP channels, and glycine receptors [11, 12, 19, 21]. In the current review of primary studies, the following receptor-specific actions were found to have been investigated as potential mediators of CBD’s anxiolytic action: CB1R, TRPV1 receptors, and 5-HT1A receptors. Pharmacology relevant to these actions is detailed below.
All exposure to restraint stress resulted in increased blood pressure and heart rate, thereby significantly increasing anxiety in the elevated plus-maze 24 hour.  However, administration of CBD alleviated the anxiety associated with the elevated plus-maze.  Prior administration of the 5-HT1A antagonist inhibited the therapeutic effects of the cannabidiol.

People who smoke cannabis often smoke it to get high and for its calming qualities, using cannabis specifically cultivated for very high amounts of THC content. Strains such as skunk are bred to contain as much of the psychoactive compound as possible, with THC levels increasing dramatically over the last few decades due to the popularity of THC’s effects for recreational users.
During the study, 50 participants with PTSD coexisting with alcohol use disorder will be given either 400 milligrams of CBD daily, or a placebo. The goal is to see if the participants who take CBD end up drinking less and whether this leads to an improvement in PTSD symptoms. The participants will be given a pharmaceutical-grade CBD, which is more reliable in strength and purity than the supplements that are currently available for sale to the public.
The oil may be further refined by 1) alkali washing, or removing the heavy aromatic carboxylic acids with antibiotic properties, which may cause heartburn, gallbladder and pancreas irritation, and resistance to hemp antibiotics; 2) conversion of CBD to THC. Process 1) consists of dissolving the oil in a nonpolar solvent such as petroleum ether, repeatedly washing (saponifying) with a base such as sodium carbonate solution until the yellow residue disappears from the watery phase, decanting, and washing with water to remove the base and the saponified components (and evaporating the solvents). This process reduces the oil yield, but the resulting oil is less acidic, easier digestible and much more potent (almost pure THC). Process 2) consists of dissolving the oil in a suitable solvent such as absolute ethanol containing 0.05% hydrochloric acid, and boiling the mixture for 2 hours.[19]

Despite the fact that marijuana remains illegal at the federal level, companies like HempMedsPx claim their CBD products are legal in all 50 states. According to a legal opinion written by Medical Marijuana, Inc.’s attorney and submitted to the New Republic, “HempMedsPx’s CBD hemp oil, containing naturally occurring CBD and miniscule amount of THC, is exempted from the definition of marijuana, is not a controlled substance, complies with the Controlled Substances Act, and is legal on the federal level.” The opinion is based in large part on a 2004 court ruling which allowed the importation of hemp food products derived from the mature stalks of cannabis plants.
According to the National Eczema Association, “Cannabinoids represent an exciting prospect for the future of AD therapy. With measurable anti-itch, anti-pain, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, the effect of cannabinoids in patients with AD has already begun to be demonstrated.” (10) Cannabinoids can be found in both cannabis oil and CBD oil.
One thing that I really really liked though, was that the effects seemed to last a long time. I have only taken the oil on four separate occasions now, and each time it’s seemed to last like 6-8 hours (or at least all evening). This makes sense too, because after doing a little reading up I found that the sublingual tinctures are much longer-lasting than CBD vape oils or e-juices.
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CBD can be taken in a few ways. Oil is probably the most popular, but it can also be taken in capsule form, or even as a chocolate or gummy. After a week of taking CBD in oil form every night, it was clear I’d stumbled across something kind of remarkable. I often slept well the first few nights of trying something new before it stopped working its magic, which I partially attribute to the placebo effect. With CBD, however, the good nights of sleep kept on coming.
In terms of eye health, cannabis and cannabis essential oil have been linked to a reduction in glaucoma and a prevention of macular degeneration, according to a report published by Dr. John Merritt, Department of Ophthalmology School of Medicine, University of North Carolina. Eye health is one of the major reasons why people turn to cannabis essential oil as they age.
In the United States, cannabidiol is a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act.[60] This means that production, distribution, and possession of CBD is illegal under federal law. In addition, in 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs, which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant."[61] Previously, CBD had simply been considered "marijuana", which is a Schedule I drug.[60][62]

CBD oil 4% is a medium-strength, organic formulation. Now, you can supplement with the confidence of a king or queen! If you are already familiar with CBD and find you require a little more than what's offered by our 2.5% formulation, this is the CBD oil for you. CBD oil 4% is derived from EU hemp strains bred for a high CBD content. Natural, GMO-free, and non-psychoactive. Available now in convenient 10, 30 and 50ml dropper bottles.
At lower doses, CDB (15 mg/day) co-administered with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 15 mg/day) increased wakefulness (Nicholson et al., 2004). More recently, Chagas et al. (2014b) investigated the effects of chronically administered CBD (75–300 mg per day for 6 weeks) in patients with Parkinson’s disease and found a reduction in symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder. After discontinuation of the drug, the frequency of symptoms returned to baseline levels, prior to treatment with CBD. Finally, CBD-enriched extract was described as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with post-traumatic stress disorder (Shannon and Opila-Lehman, 2016).
For the study, researchers recruited 8 volunteers and administered the following: THC (0.5 mg/kg), CBD (1 mg/kg), CBD/THC mix OR Valium (10 mg) or placebo (serving as controls).  The volunteers each received the combinations in an order different from the others.  Researchers were able to verify that CBD inhibited anxiety as induced by THC, but physiological data revealed it was not a result of direct THC inhibition.
Hi. I really do believe it depends on the mg & ratio of the CBD to THC. My first try at high CBD : low THC tincture oil was with Humboldt Anthropology 16:1. I started off with 2 drops twice a day after 3 days I went to 4 drops twice a day. After a few daysof that I went up to 6 drops and then 8 drops and then 10 drops twice a day. 10 drops twice a day was a perfect dosage for me. FINALLY no pondering worries or fears from all the “what if’s”. If I didn’t want to think about something I had control over not thinking about it. It was an amazing feeling. It was complete FREEDOM. Sadly the dispensary I use no longer has the Humboldt Anthropology 16:1 tincture. Last week I moved on to my first trial with a different brand. They recommend Jayden Juice 28:1 tincture 2 to 3 drops twice a day. Very 1st dose tried 4 drops(because I was up to 10 with my other tincture) and felt weird. Kinda spaced or like a head change. Not sure if it was my tincture or the fear (my anxiety) of trying something different. Didn’t like that feeling one bit. My second dose for the day I took 2 drops. With that said I took 2 drops twice a day for a couple of days. I could feel the anxiety stirring around within me. That warm tingling feeling in my chest and arms. All the “what if” thoughts are far off in the back ground of my mind. Crazy thing because I haven’t felt that feeling in over a year while taking Humboldt Anthropology 16:1 even after the passing of our son this past Aug. As of yesterday I started 3 drops twice a day with the Jayden Juice 28:1 that I currently have. Praying that I can make this work for me. $80 for .05 oz is a tad pricey, “what if” it doesn’t work for me.
Additionally, CBD oil can benefit people with other medical conditions. CBD oil may be prescribed for patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome, two rare forms of severe epilepsy; the medication Epidolex, a CBD oil oral solution, is typically prescribed in these instances. Many people with depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental health disorders have also found that CBD oil has a calming, therapeutic effect when they experience symptoms. Most medical experts agree that marijuana is not particularly beneficial for these individuals, as the THC can increase the symptoms of these disorders, making CBD oil a good alternative option.
American veterans have been vocal in the discourse regarding medical marijuana. Scientists found that people with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are deficient in endocannabinoids. They also found that CB1 receptors signal the deactivation of traumatic memories. PTSD is increasingly popping up on states’ lists of qualifying conditions for medical marijuana. In June 2017, Colorado added PTSD to its list making it the ninth and most recent qualifying condition. New York added PTSD to its tightly controlled program this year after pressure from veterans groups made its way to the governor. Those affected by PTSD often suffer from extreme anxiety, drastically impacting their life and ability to interact with others.
I’ve been experiencing panic attacks since I was 21 year olds. I am now 48. They are psychologically debilitating with depression repercussions for weeks after. I’ve tried everything – drugs, psychotherapy, meditation, breathing exercises etc. I understand the source of them and psychosis of it – but have never solved them and have pretty much given up hope. I also go through waves of anxiety – which tend to heighten the chance of a panic attack, but the two are not always correlated. Living in CO and being surrounded by CBD discussions, I finally decided to look up and see what CBD might do. Given this thread of info and responses, I’m going to start experimenting with with CBD. I will report back on the effects (maybe over six months)…and after some more research on the best place to start. THANK YOU for this article and information and everyone who has written here. It brings me to tears!
So Mechoulam called the Israeli national police and scored five kilos of confiscated Lebanese hashish. He and his research group isolated—and in some cases also synthesized—an array of substances, which he injected separately into rhesus monkeys. Only one had any observable effect. “Normally the rhesus monkey is quite an aggressive individual,” he says. But when injected with this compound, the monkeys became emphatically calm. “Sedated, I would say,” he recalls with a chuckle.
Overall, existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD as a treatment for anxiety disorders. CBD exhibits a broad range of actions, relevant to multiple symptom domains, including anxiolytic, panicolytic, and anticompulsive actions, as well as a decrease in autonomic arousal, a decrease in conditioned fear expression, enhancement of fear extinction, reconsolidation blockade, and prevention of the long-term anxiogenic effects of stress. Activation of 5-HT1ARs appears to mediate anxiolytic and panicolytic effects, in addition to reducing conditioned fear expression, although CB1R activation may play a limited role. By contrast, CB1R activation appears to mediate CBD’s anticompulsive effects, enhancement of fear extinction, reconsolidation blockade, and capacity to prevent the long-term anxiogenic consequences of stress, with involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis.
But it’s Guzmán’s brain tumor research that has captured headlines—and the interest of pharmaceutical companies. Through his years of research he has ascertained that a combination of THC, CBD, and temozolomide (a moderately successful conventional drug) works best in treating brain tumors in mice. A cocktail composed of these three compounds appears to attack brain cancer cells in multiple ways, preventing their spread but also triggering them, in effect, to commit suicide.
It is known that a major problem of several medications used in the treatment of clinical anxiety and depression is their effect on sleep architecture. Benzodiazepines are an example, since despite the rapid onset of their anxiolytic action, these drugs may produce undesirable side effects such as the increase in non-REM stage 2 sleep and reduction of SWS (Borbély et al., 1985). Long-term use of benzodiazepines may also cause reduction of SWS, loss of efficacy in the treatment of insomnia, alterations in electroencephalogram results during sleep (Poyares et al., 2004) and cognitive dysfunction, even after drug discontinuation (Stewart, 2005).
Then came Reefer Madness. Marijuana, the Assassin of Youth. The Killer Weed. The Gateway Drug. For nearly 70 years the plant went into hiding, and medical research largely stopped. In 1970 the federal government made it even harder to study marijuana, classifying it as a Schedule I drug—a dangerous substance with no valid medical purpose and a high potential for abuse, in the same category as heroin. In America most people expanding knowledge about cannabis were by definition criminals.
After arrival at the Clinical Research Unit of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital (Ribeirão Preto, Brazil) written informed consent was signed, the subjective measures (STAI, VAMS) of the participants were collected and the electrodes used for the polysomnography exam were placed. Next, the subjective measures were completed once again (STAI, VAMS) and, 30 min before the beginning of the polysomnographic examination, the single dose of CBD (300 mg) or placebo was administered. Polysomnography recordings were performed over 8 h. On the morning after the examination, the electrodes were removed from the subject and the VAMS, STAI, WAIS, and PVT were completed. The steps of the experimental protocol are shown in Figure ​Figure11.
CBD exerts several actions in the brain that explain why it could be effective in treating anxiety. Before we dive in, it’s important to note that most research describing how CBD works is preclinical and based on animal studies. As the saying goes, “mice are not men” — and, results from animal studies don’t always neatly transfer to human therapies. However, preclinical studies provide insights that move us in the right direction:
Schematic representation of the participants selection and of the protocol – this was a four period crossover study. CBD, cannabidiol; ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSG, polysomnography; PVT, Psychomotor Vigilance Test; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; TCLE, written informed consent form; VAMS, Visual Analog Mood Scale; WAIS, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[51] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[52] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[53] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[54]
Few interactions: Most evidence indicates that CBD is unlikely to interact with pharmaceutical drugs. However, when taken at a reasonable dosage, CBD is understood to inhibit CYP450 isoenzymes in the liver.  This may alter the pharmacokinetics of other drugs such as Warfarin which are metabolized by similar enzymes.  That said, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic contraindications associated with CBD appear minimal.

5-HT1A partial agonist: Modulation of neurotransmission at the 5-HT1A receptor is understood to provide anxiolytic, antidepressant, and neuroprotective effects.  Research has demonstrated the effect of cannabidiol as a 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, meaning it binds to the receptor site but only stimulates the receptor partially (relative to a full agonist).  Studies with cloned human cell cultures note that cannabidiol displaces 5-HT1A agonists from 5-HT1A receptor sites in a dose-dependent manner.


Tammy et al, Through trial and error you will find a correct dosage. Try 50 mg daily....25 each 2x daily....if no results up the dosage until it works for you. Remember, there has never been a death from marijuana or CBD use. You might want to try a tincture or rub with CBD and THC. You won't get the psych high from it. Helps my friend with PArkinsons tremors. She takes 50mg of tincture and uses the rub morning and night. It is a miracle for arthritis. Good luck
Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., Hallak, J. E., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., Martin-Santos, R., … & Guimarães, F. S. (2012). A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation [Abstract]. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 5,131–5,140. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22716160
It is known that a major problem of several medications used in the treatment of clinical anxiety and depression is their effect on sleep architecture. Benzodiazepines are an example, since despite the rapid onset of their anxiolytic action, these drugs may produce undesirable side effects such as the increase in non-REM stage 2 sleep and reduction of SWS (Borbély et al., 1985). Long-term use of benzodiazepines may also cause reduction of SWS, loss of efficacy in the treatment of insomnia, alterations in electroencephalogram results during sleep (Poyares et al., 2004) and cognitive dysfunction, even after drug discontinuation (Stewart, 2005).
Stephanie Kahn, who with her husband, Jeffrey, runs the Takoma Wellness Center, a medical marijuana dispensary in Northwest Washington, says that about half of her 1,200 patients use CBD-rich products. Her dispensary offers several strains of high-CBD cannabis as well as CBD oil, with different ratios of CBD and THC, each of which she recommends for particular conditions. “We get questions about it every day,” she says. “A lot of our patients get relief with this, and a lot of times this works better than pharmaceutical drugs.”

Having trouble sleeping? This Gold CBD Oil from Herbal Renewals could be just what you’re looking for. One of the world’s strongest and purest CBD concentrates, it’s available in three handy sizes. The concentrate is first absorbed sublingually (under your tongue), so you’ll start to feel its effects after ten to fifteen minutes. However, its thick consistency does mean it can take some time to absorb in your stomach. But when it does, it delivers a long-lasting and soothing calm—ideal for a good night’s rest.


Additionally, CBD is also thought to inhibit reconsolidation of traumatic memories, which may have therapeutic implications for those with PTSD.  What’s more, CBD appears to effectively reduce anxiety among healthy individuals without preexisting anxiety disorders.  Though the mechanisms by which CBD attenuates anxiety aren’t fully deciphered, 5-HT1A partial agonism and modulation of limbic/paralimbic function likely plays a role.
And the products on the shelf aren't all the same, Ward said. "There can be many, many different varieties, and if you're thinking about doing this for medical reasons, you want to find a trusted source and do your research," she said. "Where does that oil come from, and how confident can you be that you know the exact percentages of the different cannabinoids in the product?"

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