Michael earned an MBA from the University of Windsor’s Odette School of Business in 2009 and an M.D. from Schulich School of Medicine at Western University in 2013, before entering a Family Practice residency at the University of Toronto. A member of the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, Doctors for Responsible Access and the Canadian Pain Society, he has completed over 2,000 cannabinoid therapy consultations and has presented many talks in community and hospital settings while serving as student health physician at Seneca College and Medical Director, Canabo Medical Clinic.
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[51] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[52] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[53] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[54]
Hippocampal neurogenesis: The hippocampus is a major brain area, and plays a critical role in a variety of brain functions. It’s most famous for its role in memory formation and cognition. Brain scans of patients suffering from depression or anxiety often show a smaller hippocampus, and successful treatment of depression is associated with the birth of new neurons (neurogenesis) in the hippocampus.

Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U.S. succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[55] Hemp is classified as any part of the cannabis plant containing no more than 0.3% THC in dry weight form (not liquid or extracted form).[56]


Rich in CBD, cannabis has been used for centuries to fight illness, improve sleep, and lower anxiety. Today, our understanding of the potential benefits of CBD is growing by leaps and bounds—more and more, CBD is seen as a powerful disease-fighting agent. Thanks to decades of scientific investigation, it’s now possible to get the benefits of CBD in supplement form.
The dosages mentioned do not take into account the strength of the tincture. I have Elixinol 300, I took 1/2 dropper (0.5ml, which offers 5mg of CBD) as indicated on the bottle and felt severely nauseous for 3 hours thereafter. There is no way I cold take this dose twice per day, as recommended on the bottle. The high dosages on this site must surely be for much weaker concentrations?
Meanwhile, so-called wellness drinks infused with CBD are gaining traction. The UK’s first has been launched by Botanic Lab, promoted as “Dutch courage with a difference”. Drinks giants Coca-Cola, Molson Coors Brewing Company and Diageo are all considering launching their own versions, while UK craft breweries such as Cloud 9 Brewing and Stockton Brewing Company are offering cannabis-oil laced beers, and mixologists are spiking their cocktails with CBD mellowness. The fancy marshmallow maker, The Marshmallowist, has added CBD-oil flavour to its menu, promising that “you feel the effects immediately upon eating”, without specifying what those effects might be.
Currently, studies suggest that CBD attaches to the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, within the body, which works to maintain homeostasis in the body. CB2 receptors were found in much higher amounts in the joints of arthritis sufferers and when CBD was introduced into the body, it was found to interact with these receptors, promoting analgesia in the affected area. It also suggested that it was unlikely that CBD users would build up an eventual resistance, and so could be used without gradual reuptake.
Designs: To accurately know whether CBD is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders, robust designs should be implemented in research. In other words, study designs should be placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized, and preferably with large sample sizes.  Unfortunately, a majority of the published literature investigating the anxiolytic potential of CBD utilizes suboptimal designs, has limited numbers of participants, or both.

This is a topic I am asked about all the time, and have been for years: how does cannabis help sleep and health? I’ve heard that the number-two reason why people smoke or use cannabis is for sleep. Considering the recent passing of the recreational use of cannabis in California and other several states I think it is high time (pun intended!) to look at understanding CBD, one of the most active ingredients in medical cannabis.
Word of Caution: Although this list clearly shows that cannabis essential oil can be an effective remedy for many common health conditions, it is still a potent chemical substance extracted from a plant with psychotropic substances. Therefore, you should always be very careful while using such an essential oil, including the amount you use and the conditions under which you use it. Speak to a professional about mixing essential oils and present medications before adding any new elements to your health regimen. Also, the use of cannabis is restricted/banned in many countries, so consult a local health specialist before use.
Among the company’s many offerings is Real Scientific Hemp Oil, which it sells through its subsidiary HempMedsPx, also based in Poway. On its web site, HempMedsPx describes how its hemp “is grown in northern European microclimates, without the use of any pesticides, herbicides or chemical fertilizers.” The company promises that it “continuously scrutinizes and improves the processes to meet all regulations and exceeds quality standards.”
If I had to rate the efficacy of the second dosing option for anxiety on a scale of 1 to 10, I’d rate it about a 6.  Meaning, it was noticeably more effective than the first low-dose at even just 20 mg.  Perhaps in the future I’ll press my luck with an even greater dose of around 60 mg, which is equivalent to 600 mg CBD and the dosage that has been documented as effective for anxiety in clinical research.
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Hey Michael. Thanks for your question. The mg per drop of CBD oil will vary depending on the brand and concentration. Usually it will tell you on the label how many mgs of CBD per drop. Regarding how much you should take for sleep – this is usually going to vary for each person but a good place to start is with the serving size on the label of the CBD product you are using. Please let me know how else I can help and I’ll do my best 🙂
Cannabidiol (300 mg), 99.9% purity without THC (kindly supplied by STI-Pharm, Brentwood, United Kingdom) was dissolved in corn oil (Zuardi et al., 1993, 2017; Crippa et al., 2004). The same amount of corn oil was used as placebo. The drug and placebo were packed in identical gelatin capsules. The 300 mg dose was chosen based on previous studies that detected the acute anxiolytic effect of this dose (Zuardi et al., 1993, 2017) and the studies by Chagas et al. (2014b) and Chagas et al. (2014c), in which this dose caused a reduction in the frequency of REM sleep behavioral events and improving quality of life (including sleep) in patients with Parkinson’s disease, respectively. The time of drug delivery was based on previous studies that showed that the peak plasma concentration of an oral dose of CBD normally occurs 1–2 h after ingestion (Agurell et al., 1981; Crippa et al., 2004, 2010; Borgwardt et al., 2008; Fusar-Poli et al., 2009; Zuardi et al., 2017).
Many people find CBD helpful in the treatment of sleep disorders like insomnia, insufficient sleep, and restless leg syndrome. Sleep disorders refer to changes in sleeping patterns or habits that negatively impact health. Sleep disorders are surprisingly common, affecting 50-70 million adults in the United States. Unfortunately, most physicians prescribe pharmaceuticals to combat sleep disorders rather than managing the disorder naturally. Medications like sleeping pills and allergy/cold medicine are habit forming, unhealthy, and induce negative side effects when taken regularly. Your body develops psychological dependency to sedative hypnotic drugs like Ambien and Lunesta, and they often leave you with residual feelings of grogginess in the morning, even after a full 8 hours of sleep. The good news is that natural, plant-based remedies like CBD have helped thousands get off pharmaceutical sleeping pills. In addition to making lifestyle changes that facilitate a better night’s sleep, ingesting CBD oil before bed will help provide you with a restful night’s sleep – naturally.

Selective delta receptor agonists have been shown (in animal studies) to reduce anxiety-like behavior and block anxiogenic effects of stressors.  Specifically, modulation of the DOR in the central amygdala may predict severity of an individual’s anxiety.  There’s reason to believe that allosteric MOR and DOR modulation provided by CBD could reduce anxiety in a subset of individuals – especially when combined with aforestated 5-HT1A and CB1/CB2 effects.


Reflecting upon the experience, I also realize that it could’ve been nothing more than a placebo effect.  The placebo effect creates significant neurochemical changes as well, so maybe by expecting the BioCBD+ to do something, it ended up provoking a neurophysiological response – who knows.  The one thing that I remembered from the experience was that my brain felt as if it was being “massaged from the inside.”
But it’s Guzmán’s brain tumor research that has captured headlines—and the interest of pharmaceutical companies. Through his years of research he has ascertained that a combination of THC, CBD, and temozolomide (a moderately successful conventional drug) works best in treating brain tumors in mice. A cocktail composed of these three compounds appears to attack brain cancer cells in multiple ways, preventing their spread but also triggering them, in effect, to commit suicide.

Update 12 October 2018 - Cannabis-based medicinal products will be able to be prescribed by specialist doctors for conditions including epilepsy following a change in the law laid in parliament. From 1 November 2018 specialists, such as neurologists, will be able to prescribe medicinal cannabis on a case-by-case basis where the patient has an unmet special clinical need that will not respond to licensed medications. Anyone who is under a specialist should discuss their treatment plan with them.
Note: The author of this site is not engaged in rendering professional advice or services to the individual reader. The ideas, procedures, and suggestions contained within this work are not intended as a substitute for consulting with a medical doctor. All matters regarding your health require medical supervision. I shall not be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising from any information or suggestions within this website. You, as a reader of this website, are totally and completely responsible for your own health and healthcare.

Over the past two years, 17 states have passed laws legalizing CBD so that patients can obtain the drug without fear of prosecution from local authorities. For intractable childhood epilepsies—the sorts of seizure disorders that for centuries have ruined lives and shattered families, the ones even specialists like Hernandez dread—CBD could be a miracle cure.

A CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis in 2013 brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[64][65] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products (not exceeding a specified concentration of THC) for the treatment of certain medical conditions.[66] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[66] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor's recommendation.[66]
Overall, existing preclinical evidence strongly supports the potential of CBD as a treatment for anxiety disorders. CBD exhibits a broad range of actions, relevant to multiple symptom domains, including anxiolytic, panicolytic, and anticompulsive actions, as well as a decrease in autonomic arousal, a decrease in conditioned fear expression, enhancement of fear extinction, reconsolidation blockade, and prevention of the long-term anxiogenic effects of stress. Activation of 5-HT1ARs appears to mediate anxiolytic and panicolytic effects, in addition to reducing conditioned fear expression, although CB1R activation may play a limited role. By contrast, CB1R activation appears to mediate CBD’s anticompulsive effects, enhancement of fear extinction, reconsolidation blockade, and capacity to prevent the long-term anxiogenic consequences of stress, with involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis.
Dr. Will Cole, leading functional-medicine expert, consults people around the world via webcam at www.drwillcole.com and locally in Pittsburgh. He specializes in clinically investigating underlying factors of chronic disease and customizing health programs for thyroid issues, autoimmune conditions, hormonal dysfunctions, digestive disorders, and brain problems.Dr. Cole was named one of the top 50 functional-medicine and integrative doctors in the nation and is the author of Ketotarian in which he melds the powerful benefits of the ketogenic and plant-based diets.
Although not as abundant as THC cannabinoid content, cannabidiol accounts for approximately 40% of all cannabinoids within cannabis extract.  Unlike THC, cannabidiol is non-psychoactive and isn’t typically ingested with the intent to attain any sort of psychological euphoria.  That said, the medicinal properties associated with cannabidiol (often administered in the format of “CBD oil”) are thought to far exceed those of THC.

Is it possible that some types or “strains” of hemp extracts used for CBD tinctures/capsules could actually increase a persons anxiety and insomnia? I’m a chiropractor and I personally use and sell CBD products in my office. I sell a few different brands. I have had several patients complain about a new higher dosage (50mg per serving) brand saying it actually increased their anxiety, increased their heart rate and prevented them from sleeping well. I have a few other patients that say that this same brand has been very useful in pain relief. Does this have more to do with the terpene profile that the amount of CBD?


While researching for this blog, we discovered some major disparities between the findings in scientific studies and the anecdotal evidence of regular CBD users. Unfortunately, the academic research is fundamentally flawed, and in some cases, seemingly compromised by a conflict of interest. Similarly, it can be difficult to conclude the true nature of anecdotal arguments.
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Multiple types of anxiety: A limitation associated with CBD research is that it hasn’t been tested extensively among patients with a specific diagnostic subtype of anxiety (e.g. generalized anxiety). That said, studies note that CBD is likely efficacious in treating symptoms of many different types of anxiety including: social phobia, PTSD, panic disorder, OCD, and generalized anxiety disorder.  Therefore, individuals may derive anxiolytic benefit from CBD – regardless of their specific type of anxiety.
Whether any of these CBD products will do anyone any good (or bad) is moot. “Cannabidiol is the hottest new medicine in mental health because the proper clinical trials do suggest it has clinical effects,” says Philip McGuire, professor of psychiatry and cognitive neuroscience at King’s College London. “It is the No 1 new treatment we’re interested in. But although there’s tons of stuff in the news about it, there’s still not that much evidence.” Large, long-term studies are needed; a 2017 review paper into the safety profile of CBD concluded that “important toxicological parameters are yet to be studied; for example, if CBD has an effect on hormones”.

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