The following instruments were used: (a) Visual Analog Mood Scale – VAMS (Norris, 1971); (b) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI (Spielberger et al., 1970), translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese by Gorenstein and Andrade (1996); (c) Epworth Sleepiness Scale – ESS (Johns, 1991); (d) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index – PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989); (e) digit symbol substitution and symbol copying tests of the Wechsler (1955) Adult Intelligence Scale – WAIS; and (f) Psychomotor Vigilance Test – PVT (Graw et al., 2004; as made available by the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research).
Everything you need to know about CBD oil CBD oil may offer a range of benefits, including reducing pain and inflammation. Evidence shows that the oil does not contain psychoactive properties and so does not have the same effects as marijuana. Here, learn more about CBD oil and its uses, benefits, and risks. We also discuss its legality in the U.S. Read now
My friend had told me that all I do was use the dropper bottle and place 15 drops under my tongue, and then wait for about 90 seconds before swallowing (it also says this very clearly on the bottle as well). I actually went in front of a mirror to administer the drops, so I could count exactly how much I was putting in (you really don’t need to do this though because you can kind of feel the drops as they hit your mouth and count how many you’re putting in that way).
In other words, the greater the amount of CBD oil administered following administration of a 5-HT1A agonist, the more significant the displacement.  Researchers mention that this mechanism differs from THC which is incapable of displacing 5-HT1A agonists from the 5-HT1A receptor.  Partial agonism of the 5-HT1A receptor site is associated with an array of therapeutic effects including: increased serotonin (or serotonergic effects), increased dopamine (in medial PFC, striatum, hippocampus), releasing acetylcholine, and hippocampal neurogenesis.
Initial data also suggests that CBD has other far-reaching medical applications. A 2013 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found that “CBD was shown to offer benefits including acting in some experimental models as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, antiemetic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent.” This means CBD could be used as “potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, oxidative injury, vomiting and nausea, anxiety and schizophrenia.”

Stephanie, generally, I have patients take 20 to 150mg a day for sleep +/- anxiety. Start low and go slow. Know the dosages of your product. Usually 2/3 to 3/4 of the daily dose is 1-2 hours before bedtime, and the other portion is upon waking (to improve wakefulness during the day). Other factors such as stress, hormone replacement, other meds & medical conditions, etc. play a role along with individual differences. I own a compounding pharmacy, so we see a lot of unique needs. I can't give more specific advice in this forum, but there is help!


Hash oil is an extracted cannabis product that may utilize any part of the plant. Ideally, the final product will not contain any residual traces of solvents. It is generally thought to be indistinct from traditional hashish according to the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV) as it is "the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant".
Although the science is still unclear on the subject, cannabis oil is being considered as a natural cancer treatment as well as cancer preventer option because it may decrease the size of tumors and alleviate nausea, pain, lack of appetite and weakness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved alternative cannabis oil cancer treatment or use of cannabis oil for any other medical condition, but research shows that it has some anti-cancer properties.

Shots is the online channel for health stories from the NPR Science Desk. We report on news that can make a difference for your health and show how policy shapes our health choices. Look to Shots for the latest on research and medical treatments, as well as the business side of health. Your hosts are Scott Hensley and Carmel Wroth. You can reach the Shots team via our contact form.


Glad you're off that stuff and sorry to hear about the hell of cold turkey on that stuff. I've had a taste of that horror missing doses of a benzo, clonazepam, and now tapering slowly over 5 months. The other things – weed psychological addiction, sugar, caffeine, gonna white knuckle the weed as I'm out soon and saving to take the bar exam. I'm going to try using CBD oil as I heard it's effective at reducing anxiety, lifting mood, and so on. Thank you for sharing and wishing you, too, and us all, good health and peace. Will ask my pharmacist about expected withdrawal. Thank you!
Results from the study indicated that CBD administration increased neuronal proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal region.  It is also thought that CBD’s modest affinity for cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 may contribute to hippocampal neurogenesis.  Stimulation of the CB1/CB2 receptor sites upregulates endocannabinoid signaling and leads to neuronal growth.
The oil may be further refined by 1) alkali washing, or removing the heavy aromatic carboxylic acids with antibiotic properties, which may cause heartburn, gallbladder and pancreas irritation, and resistance to hemp antibiotics; 2) conversion of CBD to THC. Process 1) consists of dissolving the oil in a nonpolar solvent such as petroleum ether, repeatedly washing (saponifying) with a base such as sodium carbonate solution until the yellow residue disappears from the watery phase, decanting, and washing with water to remove the base and the saponified components (and evaporating the solvents). This process reduces the oil yield, but the resulting oil is less acidic, easier digestible and much more potent (almost pure THC). Process 2) consists of dissolving the oil in a suitable solvent such as absolute ethanol containing 0.05% hydrochloric acid, and boiling the mixture for 2 hours.[19]
One study comparing the effects of THC and CBD even found that, while THC increased anxiety by activating the neurotransmitters involved in the "fight or flight" response, CBD actually repressed autonomic arousal—or the nervous system response associated with sudden increases in heart rate or respiration. In other words, CBD is ideal for people looking to relax and unwind—not get out of their minds.

The American public is starting to see the light when it comes to CBD as a safe and effective treatment option for a long list of medical problems. While THC and similar oils have been used for their health benefits going back to the dawn of civilization (even before the Great Wall of China was built!), people are just recently rediscovering the profound positive impact these oils can have on treating ailments.


Are you willing to share what you're anxiety is about? I had panic and anxiety attacks for years and used Ativan and later Lorazepam for them, especially when I had to fly in planes. About 6 years ago I started taking Citalopram antidepressant, and all my anxiety/panic attacks went away. I only had it again recently during my withdrawal process. I know my relief from anxiety is from the Citalopram. I even did 7 zip lines in Costa Rica a little over a year ago. My flights there, to Panama and back were anxiety free. That has been so incredible for me! I love traveling now.
It was actually a bad bout of jet lag after a trip to California that inspired me to finally test out the CBD oil (I'll admit that my weed-based reservations kept me from trying it for the first few months). Knowing that the oil had also helped people with sleep issues, I squeezed one full dropper of the Everyday Plus oil onto my tongue, per the instructions, and waited.
While there are more unknowns than knowns at this point, Grant says he doesn’t discount all the anecdotal CBD reports. “You hear somebody say, ‘Hey, I gave this to myself and my kid and we feel a lot better,’ and we should never dismiss that kind of information,” he says. He points out that many modern medicines were discovered when researchers followed up on exactly this sort of human trial-and-error evidence. “But we still need to do the studies that confirm whether all the good things are true, and how much to give, and how to give it,” he says. “These are all questions that need to be answered.”
TRPV1 receptor: The TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1) receptor is a “vanilloid receptor” associated mostly with the modulation of body temperature and nociception.  Cannabidiol is believed to act as a TRPV1 receptor agonist, thereby stimulating the receptor which may reduce sensations of pain and lower inflammation.  It is possible that the nociceptive effect associated with TRPV1 agonism also reduces anxiety.
During the study, 50 participants with PTSD coexisting with alcohol use disorder will be given either 400 milligrams of CBD daily, or a placebo. The goal is to see if the participants who take CBD end up drinking less and whether this leads to an improvement in PTSD symptoms. The participants will be given a pharmaceutical-grade CBD, which is more reliable in strength and purity than the supplements that are currently available for sale to the public.
I have been riddled with anxiety and panic for 9 months now (no clue why)….. but then again, do any of us really know “why?” 🙄 Anyway, I went to the doctor and he put me on Zoloft. Holy Sh*t! Just awful! I weened myself off with the help of CBD oil. I too was scared to try it but the reality was I was scared either way (anxiety makes me scared!) LIFE CHANGING! So much so that my husband goes out of his was to buy me things that contain CBD (gummies, vapes, etc) I started on Prime my body hemp but it was very, very, expensive. I recently switched to PureKana mint and so far so good for half the price. My advice to anyone who is scared to try it, DO IT. I’m a natural born scaredy-cat! I tried it out of pure desperation and I’m so happy that I did! No high, no zoned out feeling, no floating, just a natural sense of relaxation. Brings your brain back down to reality. Good luck!
Designs: To accurately know whether CBD is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders, robust designs should be implemented in research. In other words, study designs should be placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized, and preferably with large sample sizes.  Unfortunately, a majority of the published literature investigating the anxiolytic potential of CBD utilizes suboptimal designs, has limited numbers of participants, or both.
Unfortunately, due to strict FDA laws, I am not legally able to say that CBD will help with your husbands specific condition, however I can direct you to some literature to help you better understand what CBD may offer. I have attached links below. As far as strength and dosage goes, tinctures and concentrates are absorbed the fastest since it goes directly into your blood stream; the dosage on these can be measured and controlled. Capsules take a little longer to enter your body since it goes through your digestive tract, these are also measured and controlled. I would recommend reading through our page on dosing as well to get a better understanding.https://cbdoilreview.org/cbd-cannabidiol/https://cbdoilreview.org/cbd-cannabidiol/cbd-dosage/I hope these help :)

74. Deiana S, Watanabe A, Yamasaki Y. Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2012;219:859–873. doi: 10.1007/s00213-011-2415-0. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]


Whether any of these CBD products will do anyone any good (or bad) is moot. “Cannabidiol is the hottest new medicine in mental health because the proper clinical trials do suggest it has clinical effects,” says Philip McGuire, professor of psychiatry and cognitive neuroscience at King’s College London. “It is the No 1 new treatment we’re interested in. But although there’s tons of stuff in the news about it, there’s still not that much evidence.” Large, long-term studies are needed; a 2017 review paper into the safety profile of CBD concluded that “important toxicological parameters are yet to be studied; for example, if CBD has an effect on hormones”.
Human activities—including pollution, deforestation, overpopulation, poaching, warming oceans and extreme weather events tied to climate change—are predicted to drive so many mammals to extinction in the next five decades that nature will need somewhere between 3 to 7 million years to restore biodiversity levels to where it was before modern humans evolved, according to an alarming new analysis published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) like Celexa, Lexapro, and Zoloft, are primarily prescribed to treat depression. They work by preventing serotonin from being absorbed by the brain, increasing its availability. SSRIs are popular antidepressants that can be used long-term and are commonly prescribed to those who suffer from anxiety as well.
FAAH inhibitor: The anxiolytic efficacy of CBD may be a result of its ability to act as an enzymatic inhibitor of FAAH (fatty acid amide hydroxylase).  FAAH is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing endocannabinoids such as anandamide, but when inhibited, these endocannabinoid concentrations are increased.  Increased concentrations of endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG, both of which bind to peripheral CB1/CB2 receptor sites.
I have severe neuropathy in both feet and legs. I just got the CBD oil and I am interested in learning if anyone out there has had any success with this. I know each case and pain levels are different. Just would like to see some positive remarks from people who suffer with it. I am not looking for a cure just need an update on someone who took and it helped. I already know there is no cure. I need help with the pain. Thank you.
When Meagan’s in-laws suggested they look into medical marijuana, she recoiled. “This is a federally illegal drug we are talking about,” she recalls thinking. But she did her own research. A good deal of anecdotal evidence shows that high-CBD strains of cannabis can have a strong antiseizure effect. The medical literature, though scant, goes back surprisingly far. In 1843 a British doctor named William O’Shaughnessy published an article detailing how cannabis oil had arrested an infant’s relentless convulsions.
Michael earned an MBA from the University of Windsor’s Odette School of Business in 2009 and an M.D. from Schulich School of Medicine at Western University in 2013, before entering a Family Practice residency at the University of Toronto. A member of the Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, Doctors for Responsible Access and the Canadian Pain Society, he has completed over 2,000 cannabinoid therapy consultations and has presented many talks in community and hospital settings while serving as student health physician at Seneca College and Medical Director, Canabo Medical Clinic.
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Designs: To accurately know whether CBD is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders, robust designs should be implemented in research. In other words, study designs should be placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized, and preferably with large sample sizes.  Unfortunately, a majority of the published literature investigating the anxiolytic potential of CBD utilizes suboptimal designs, has limited numbers of participants, or both.

As it turns out, healthy sleep-wake cycles are extremely dependent on our state of “alertness” during the day. If you are a victim of insomnia, for example, you (along with millions of other individuals) are likely drowsy, fatigued, and generally “out-of-sorts” during the afternoon. As you might imagine, this wreaks havoc on your sleep-wake cycle as it makes it nearly impossible to enter and maintain the non-REM sleep that you need at night.


Dispensaries: In states where marijuana is legal for recreational use, dispensaries are a common sight. They are much rarer in states with more restrictions. In states that permit the use of medical marijuana, hemp-based CBD oils do not normally require a prescription but marijuana-based oils do. Like brick-and-mortar locations, dispensaries offer more customer service. However, as noted, this may not be an option depending on the buyer’s state of residence. Also, CBD oil prices tend to be significantly higher at dispensaries.

"It's important to know that the research in this area is in its infancy, partly because we haven't really understood much about CBD until relatively recently," said Marcel Bonn-Miller, an adjunct assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. He pointed out that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug by the DEA makes it difficult to get material to use in laboratory studies. Schedule 1 drugs have a high potential for abuse, according to the DEA, and are illegal under federal law.

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